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Subject = Probability;
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Displaying Results 1  25 of 28 on page 1 of 2
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A New Archaeoastronomical Investigation of the Irish AxialStone Circles
(1996)
Prendergast, Frank T.; Ruggles, Clive L.
A New Archaeoastronomical Investigation of the Irish AxialStone Circles
(1996)
Prendergast, Frank T.; Ruggles, Clive L.
Abstract:
This paper presents the preliminary results of a project undertaken in 1994 to investigate the astronomical potential of the axialstone circles (ASCs) of seven or more stones in Counties Cork and Kerry, southwest Ireland. This group of sites is of particular interest in that the monuments in the group bear a striking resemblance to the recumbent stone circles (RSCs) of Aberdeenshire, eastern Scotland, which appear to exhibit a strong pattern of alignment in relation to prominent hilltop summits and the rising and setting position of the moon. The first indications from the Irish data are that similar patterns of alignment are not evident in the Irish ASCs. The Irish sites show no preference for orientation upon prominent hilltops and no clear astronomical trends.
https://arrow.dit.ie/archastrocon/1
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A probabilistic approach to user mobility prediction for wireless services.
(2016)
Stynes, David A.; Brown, Kenneth N.; Sreenan, Cormac J.
A probabilistic approach to user mobility prediction for wireless services.
(2016)
Stynes, David A.; Brown, Kenneth N.; Sreenan, Cormac J.
Abstract:
Mobile and wireless networks have long exploited mobility predictions, focused on predicting the future location of given users, to perform more efficient network resource management. In this paper, we present a new approach in which we provide predictions as a probability distribution of the likelihood of moving to a set of future locations. This approach provides wireless services a greater amount of knowledge and enables them to perform more effectively. We present a framework for the evaluation of this new type of predictor, and develop 2 new predictors, HEM and GStat. We evaluate our predictors accuracy in predicting future cells for mobile users, using two large geolocation data sets, from MDC [11], [12] and Crawdad [13]. We show that our predictors can successfully predict with as low as an average 2.2% inaccuracy in certain scenarios.
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3343
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An investigation into the teaching and learning of probability at senior cycle
(2011)
Murphy, Conor
An investigation into the teaching and learning of probability at senior cycle
(2011)
Murphy, Conor
Abstract:
In Ireland at present, the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment is comprehensively overhauling the Second Level Mathematics curriculum. This reformed curriculum is known as Project Maths and is a response to concerns about how Irish students are taught and learn mathematics. These concerns are based around the achievement of Irish student’s in international studies (Close and Oldham 2005; Cosgrove, Shiel, Sofroniou, Zastrutzki and Shortt 2005; Perkins, Moran, Cosgrove and Shiel 2010; Oldham 2002, 2006) as well as domestic and international literature which, highlights the problems associated with the behaviourist methodology favoured by Irish teachers (Conway and Sloane 2006; English, O’Donoghue and Bajpai 1992; Lyons, Lynch, Close, Sheerin and Boland 2003; NCCA 2005). The aim of the study was to improve the teaching and learning of Probability through the development of a resource pack. probability was chosen as the focus of the intervention due to the author’s experience...
http://hdl.handle.net/10344/2025
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Contourlet textual features: improving the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules in two dimensional CT images
(2014)
Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Tao; Gao, Ni; Menon, Desmond Dev; Luo, Yanxia; Gao, Qi; Li, Xia; W...
Contourlet textual features: improving the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules in two dimensional CT images
(2014)
Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Tao; Gao, Ni; Menon, Desmond Dev; Luo, Yanxia; Gao, Qi; Li, Xia; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Huiping; Lv, Pingxin; Liang, Zhigang; Tao, Lixin; Liu, Xiangtong; Guo, Xiuhua
Abstract:
Objective: To determine the value of contourlet textural features obtained from solitary pulmonary nodules in two dimensional CT images used in diagnoses of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 6,299 CT images were acquired from 336 patients, with 1,454 benign pulmonary nodule images from 84 patients (50 male, 34 female) and 4,845 malignant from 252 patients (150 male, 102 female). Further to this, nineteen patient information categories, which included seven demographic parameters and twelve morphological features, were also collected. A contourlet was used to extract fourteen types of textural features. These were then used to establish three support vector machine models. One comprised a database constructed of nineteen collected patient information categories, another included contourlet textural features and the third one contained both sets of information. Tenfold crossvalidation was used to evaluate the diagnosis results for the three databases, with sensitivity, ...
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/2325
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Cow factors affecting the risk of clinical mastitis
(2013)
Berry, Donagh P.; Meaney, William J
Cow factors affecting the risk of clinical mastitis
(2013)
Berry, Donagh P.; Meaney, William J
Abstract:
The objective of the present study was to identify cow risk factors associated with development of clinical mastitis (CM) in subsequent stages of lactation. A total of 3,309 lactations from springcalving HolsteinFriesian cows were included in the analysis; parity number ranged from one to three, inclusive. A generalised estimating equations approach with a logit link function was used to account for the binary nature of the data and the unequal number of repeated records per cow. The dependent variable was the probability of developing CM in the subsequent stage of lactation. Independent variables included in the model were chosen using stepwise selection; herd, year of birth, month of calving, parity, period of lactation and previous CM history significantly affected the probability of CM. Twoway interactions between parity and period of lactation and between parity and incidence of CM in the previous lactation were also included in the model. A greater probability of developing...
http://hdl.handle.net/11019/463
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Economic Risk Assessment using the Fractal Market Hypothesis
(2010)
Blackledge, Jonathan; Rebow, Marek
Economic Risk Assessment using the Fractal Market Hypothesis
(2010)
Blackledge, Jonathan; Rebow, Marek
Abstract:
This paper considers the Fractal Market Hypothesi (FMH) for assessing the risk(s) in developing a financial portfolio based on data that is available through the Internet from an increasing number of sources. Most financial risk management systems are still based on the Efficient Market Hypothesis which often fails due to the inaccuracies of the statistical models that underpin the hypothesis, in particular, that financial data are based on stationary Gaussian processes. The FMH considered in this paper assumes that financial data are nonstationary and statistically selfaffine so that a risk analysis can, in principal, be applied at any time scale provided there is sufficient data to make the output of a FMH analysis statistically significant.
https://arrow.dit.ie/engscheleart/151
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Embodied Emissions Abatement: a Policy Assessment using Stochastic Analysis
(2011)
Duffy, Aidan; Acquaye, Adolf; Basu, Biswajit
Embodied Emissions Abatement: a Policy Assessment using Stochastic Analysis
(2011)
Duffy, Aidan; Acquaye, Adolf; Basu, Biswajit
Abstract:
Policymakers traditionally focus on regulating operational energy use in buildings, ignoring other life cycle components such as embodied energy even though this may account for a significant portion of life cycle emissions. Data relating to embodied energy and emissions in buildings is limited. However, stochastic techniques can be used to estimate the distribution of such emissions from buildings. This helps policymakers identify which instruments are appropriate for achieving emissions reductions. A primary aim of this paper is to demonstrate this approach using a sample of apartment buildings in Ireland. A MonteCarlo simulation suggests that the average probability distribution of embodied greenhouse gases in a sample of Irish apartment buildings is characteristic of a Wakeby distribution with a long tail which can be targeted for improvement through the implementation of appropriate policies. Two policies are investigated: one regulatory whereby the embodied emissions of build...
https://arrow.dit.ie/engschcivart/13
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Encryption using Deterministic Chaos
(2010)
Blackledge, Jonathan; Ptitsyn, Nikolai
Encryption using Deterministic Chaos
(2010)
Blackledge, Jonathan; Ptitsyn, Nikolai
Abstract:
The concepts of randomness, unpredictability, complexity and entropy form the basis of modern cryptography and a cryptosystem can be interpreted as the design of a keydependent bijective transformation that is unpredictable to an observer for a given computational resource. For any cryptosystem, including a PseudoRandom Number Generator (PRNG), encryption algorithm or a key exchange scheme, for example, a cryptanalyst has access to the time series of a dynamic system and knows the PRNG function (the algorithm that is assumed to be based on some iterative process) which is taken to be in the public domain by virtue of the KerchhoffShannon principal, i.e. the enemy knows the system. However, the time series is not a compact subset of a trajectory (intermediate states are hidden) and the iteration function is taken to include a ‘secret parameter’  the ‘key’. We can think of the sample as being ‘random’, ‘unpredictable’ and ‘complex’. What do these properties mean mathematically and...
https://arrow.dit.ie/engscheleart2/15
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External validation of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk prediction tool in older communitydwelling people attending general practice: a prospective cohort study.
(2016)
Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M
External validation of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk prediction tool in older communitydwelling people attending general practice: a prospective cohort study.
(2016)
Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M
Abstract:
<p>The original article is available at <a href="https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/11/e012336">bmjopen.bmj.com</a></p>
<p><strong>OBJECTIVES:</strong> Emergency admission is associated with the potential for adverse events in older people and risk prediction models are available to identify those at highest risk of admission. The aim of this study was to externally validate and compare the performance of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk model and a modified version (incorporating a multimorbidity measure) in predicting emergency admission in older communitydwelling people.</p> <p><strong>SETTING:</strong> 15 general practices (GPs) in the Republic of Ireland.</p> <p><strong>PARTICIPANTS:</strong> n=862, ≥70 years, communitydwelling people prospectively followed up for 2 years (20102012).</p> <p><strong>EXPOSURE:</strong> Pra risk model (o...
https://epubs.rcsi.ie/gpart/131
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Fast and reliable LoRabased data transmissions
(2019)
Zorbas, Dimitrios; Maillé, Patrick; O'Flynn, Brendan; Douligeris, Christos
Fast and reliable LoRabased data transmissions
(2019)
Zorbas, Dimitrios; Maillé, Patrick; O'Flynn, Brendan; Douligeris, Christos
Abstract:
LoRaWAN is a recently proposed MAC layer protocol which manages communications between LoRabased gateways and enddevices. It has attracted much scientific attention due its physical layer characteristics, but mainly due to its versatile configuration parameters. However, it is known that LoRaWANbased transmissions suffer from extensive collisions due to the unregulated access to the medium. For this reason, various techniques that alleviate the burst of collisions have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we deal with the problem of fast data delivery in LoRabased networks. We model a network where transmissions follow a Poisson process. We compute the average packet success probability per Spreading Factor (SF) assuming orthogonal transmissions. We, then, formulate an SF optimization problem to maximize the success probability given an amount of data per node and a maximum data collection time window. We show  both theoretically and using simulations  that the ove...
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/9720
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Fatigue, deterioration and system analysis of the boyne viaduct
(2018)
Connolly, Lorcan; O’Connor, Alan; Bowe, Cathal
Fatigue, deterioration and system analysis of the boyne viaduct
(2018)
Connolly, Lorcan; O’Connor, Alan; Bowe, Cathal
http://hdl.handle.net/10379/10879
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Fractional Anisotropic Diffusion for Noise Reduction in Magnetic Resonance Images
(2010)
Blackledge, Jonathan; Blackledge, Matthew
Fractional Anisotropic Diffusion for Noise Reduction in Magnetic Resonance Images
(2010)
Blackledge, Jonathan; Blackledge, Matthew
Abstract:
We extend the method of anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction in digital images to the case when the diffusion processes are nonGaussian and Levy distributed. This yields a fractional diffusion equation characterised by the Levy index. A solution to this equation is considered and a numerical algorithm developed. The algorithm is then applied as a case study to the problem of reducing noise in magnetic resonance imaging. The focus of this study is on diffusion weighted images which have low signaltonoise ratios.
https://arrow.dit.ie/engscheleart2/14
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FREE  Finegrained scheduling for reliable and energyefficient data collection in LoRaWAN
(2019)
Abdelfadeel, Khaled Q.; Zorbas, Dimitrios; Cionca, Victor; Pesch, Dirk
FREE  Finegrained scheduling for reliable and energyefficient data collection in LoRaWAN
(2019)
Abdelfadeel, Khaled Q.; Zorbas, Dimitrios; Cionca, Victor; Pesch, Dirk
Abstract:
LoRaWAN promises to provide widearea network access to lowcost devices that can operate for up to ten years on a single 1000mAh battery. This makes LoRaWAN particularly suited for the data collection applications (e.g., monitoring applications), where device lifetime is a key performance metric. However, when supporting a large number of devices, LoRaWAN suffers from a scalability issue due to the high collision probability of its Alohabased MAC layer. The performance worsens further when using acknowledged transmissions due to the dutycycle restriction at the gateway. For this, we propose FREE, a finegrained scheduling scheme for reliable and energyefficient data collection in LoRaWAN. FREE takes advantage of applications that do not have hard delay requirements on data delivery by supporting the synchronized bulk data transmission. This means data are buffered for transmission in scheduled time slots instead of transmitted straight away. FREE allocates spreading factors, tr...
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/9721
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Generalised Digital Predistortion of RF Power Amplifiers with LowRate Feedback Signal
(2016)
Wang, Ziming; Ibrahim, Sarah; Su, Han; Farrell, Ronan
Generalised Digital Predistortion of RF Power Amplifiers with LowRate Feedback Signal
(2016)
Wang, Ziming; Ibrahim, Sarah; Su, Han; Farrell, Ronan
Abstract:
Assuming there is an infinite periodically sinusoidal signal x with known frequency, one can sample x at Nyquist zone or samplingrate to recover the signal. In terms of digital predistortion (DPD) with modulated signal as input, this paper will show the same concept that theoretically one can sample the feedback signal at arbitrary sampling rate to obtain the same coefficient of DPD or behavioural models as the one calculated from the high sampling rate feedback signal. The performance of a generalised DPD technique using a traditional memory polynomial with lowrate analogtodigital device(ADC) is experimentally validated. The NMSE and ACPR results indicate the same performance by using an ADC sampling from 100 MHz to 10 MHz.
http://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/8035/
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Interlacing diffusions
(2019)
O'Connell, Neil; Assiotis, Theodoros; Warren, Jon
Interlacing diffusions
(2019)
O'Connell, Neil; Assiotis, Theodoros; Warren, Jon
Abstract:
We study in some generality intertwinings between htransforms of KarlinMcGregor semigroups associated with one dimensional diffusion processes and those of their Siegmund duals. We obtain couplings so that the corresponding processes are interlaced and furthermore give formulae in terms of block determinants for the transition densities of these coupled processes. This allows us to build diffusion processes in the space of GelfandTsetlin patterns so that the evolution of each level is Markovian. We show how known examples naturally fit into this framework and construct new processes related to minors of matrix valued diffusions. We also provide explicit formulae for the transition densities of the particle systems with onesided collisions at either edge of such patterns.
European Research Council
MASDOC DTC grant
12 month embargo  AC
http://hdl.handle.net/10197/10314
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Lotteries and Probability Theory
(2010)
STONE, PETER
Lotteries and Probability Theory
(2010)
STONE, PETER
Abstract:
A variety of decisions seem to require resort to a coin toss, die roll, or the drawing of straws?in other words, a fair lottery. This raises the question of what features distinguish fair lotteries from alternative procedures. The intuitive answer is that a fair lottery generates each of its possible outcomes with equal probability. But probability is a contentious term. There are a variety of conceptions of probability, and it may be the case that equiprobable lotteries are useful for decisionmaking under some conceptions but not others. This paper considers four of the leading conceptions of probability?the frequentist, objective, subjective, and logical conceptions. It argues that unless the logical conception is adopted, it is impossible to make sense of the contribution that lotteries can make to decisionmaking.
http://hdl.handle.net/2262/61819
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On the convergence of the chi square and noncentral chi square distributions to the normal distribution
(2013)
Horgan, Donagh; Murphy, Colin C.
On the convergence of the chi square and noncentral chi square distributions to the normal distribution
(2013)
Horgan, Donagh; Murphy, Colin C.
Abstract:
A simple and novel asymptotic bound for the maximum error resulting from the use of the central limit theorem to approximate the distribution of chi square and noncentral chi square random variables is derived. The bound enables the quick calculation of the number of degrees of freedom required to ensure a given approximation error, and is significantly tighter than bounds derived using the BerryEsseen theorem. An application to widelyused approximations for the decision probabilities of energy detectors is also provided.
http://hdl.handle.net/10468/1463
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People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise)
(2016)
Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul
People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise)
(2016)
Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul
Abstract:
A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(AB) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noisecancelling identities, but deviating from prob...
http://hdl.handle.net/10197/8159
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Probability of Error Analysis for Hidden Markov Model Filtering With Random Packet Loss
(2007)
Leong, Alex S.; Dey, Subhrakanti; Evans, Jamie S.
Probability of Error Analysis for Hidden Markov Model Filtering With Random Packet Loss
(2007)
Leong, Alex S.; Dey, Subhrakanti; Evans, Jamie S.
Abstract:
This paper studies the probability of error for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of hidden Markov models, where measurements can be either lost or received according to another Markov process. Analytical expressions for the error probabilities are derived for the noiseless and noisy cases. Some relationships between the error probability and the parameters of the loss process are demonstated via both analysis and numerical results. In the high signaltonoise ratio (SNR) regime, approximate expressions which can be more easily computed than the exact analytical form for the noisy case are presented.
http://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/12723/
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Simulation of Traffic Loading on Highway Bridges
(2010)
Enright, Bernard
Simulation of Traffic Loading on Highway Bridges
(2010)
Enright, Bernard
Abstract:
This work is based on weighinmotion measurements for approximately three million trucks obtained from sites in five European countries. Techniques have been developed, supported by photographic evidence, for filtering the measurements to identify and remove unreliable values, and for the classification of extremely heavy vehicles. The collected measurements have been used as the basis for building and calibrating a Monte Carlo simulation model for bridge loading. Twolane traffic is simulated – either two lanes in the same direction or one lane in each direction. The model allows for vehicles that are both heavier and have more axles than in the measured data. Careful program design and optimisation have made it practical to simulate thousands of years of traffic. This has a number of advantages – the variability associated with extrapolation is greatly reduced, rare events are modelled, and the simulation output identifies the typical loading scenarios which produce the lifetime ...
https://arrow.dit.ie/engschcivoth/16
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Stochastic Hybrid Embodied CO2eq Analysis: an Application to the Irish Apartment Building Sector
(2011)
Acquaye, Adolf; Duffy, Aidan; Basu, Biswajit
Stochastic Hybrid Embodied CO2eq Analysis: an Application to the Irish Apartment Building Sector
(2011)
Acquaye, Adolf; Duffy, Aidan; Basu, Biswajit
Abstract:
Although embodiedCO2eq analysis has seen recent developments as evident in the establishment of the ISO14040 and 14044 LCA standards, it is recognized that due to weaknesses in gathering data on productrelated emissions,embodiedCO2eq values are probabilistic. This paper presents a stochastic analysis of hybrid embodied CO2eq in buildings to account for this weakness in traditional methods and, by way of example, applies it to an Irish constructionsector case study. Using seven apartment buildings, 70,000 results are simulated with Monte Carlo analysis and used to derive probabilistic and cumulative embodied CO2eq intensity distributions for apartment buildings in Ireland. A Wakeby distribution with known statistical parameters and uncertainty was derived for the average embodied CO2eq intensity of apartment building in Ireland. The mean hybrid embodied CO2eq (ECO2eq) intensity was estimated to be 1,636gCO2eq/€ with an uncertainty of 73gCO2eq/€ . The stochastic analysis he...
https://arrow.dit.ie/dubenart/46
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Surprising rationality in probability judgment: Assessing two competing models
(2018)
Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul; Fisher, Christopher
Surprising rationality in probability judgment: Assessing two competing models
(2018)
Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul; Fisher, Christopher
Abstract:
We describe 4 experiments testing contrasting predictions of two recent models of probability judgment: the quantum probability model (Busemeyer, Pothos, Franco, & Trueblood, 2011) and the probability theory plus noise model (Costello & Watts, 2014, 2016a). Both models assume that people estimate probability using formal processes that follow or subsume standard probability theory. One set of predictions concerned agreement between people’s probability estimates and standard probability theory identities. The quantum probability model predicts people’s estimates should agree with one set of identities, while the probability theory plus noise model predicts a specific pattern of violation of those identities. Experimental results show the specific pattern of violation predicted by the probability theory plus noise model. Another set of predictions concerned the conjunction fallacy, which occurs when people judge the probability of a conjunction P ( ) A B ∧ to be greater than ...
http://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/13097/
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Surprisingly rational: Probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment
(2014)
Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul
Surprisingly rational: Probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment
(2014)
Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul
Abstract:
The systematic biases seen in people’s probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people’s probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviatio...
http://hdl.handle.net/10197/6185
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Telephone survey of private patients' views on continuity of care and registration with general practice in Ireland.
(2007)
Carmody, Patricia; Whitford, David L
Telephone survey of private patients' views on continuity of care and registration with general practice in Ireland.
(2007)
Carmody, Patricia; Whitford, David L
Abstract:
<p>This article is also available at http://www.biomedcentral.com/14712296/8/17</p>
<p>BACKGROUND: The desire of patients for personal continuity of care with a General Practitioner (GP) has been well documented, but not within nonregistered private patients in Ireland. This study set out to examine the attitudes and reported behaviours of private feepaying patients towards continuity of GP care and universal registration for patients.</p> <p>METHODS: Crosssectional telephone survey of 400 randomly chosen feepaying patients living within County Dublin. There is no formal system of registration with a GP for these patients. Main outcomes were attendance of respondents at primary health care facilities and their attitudes towards continuity of care and registration with a GP. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and using parametric and nonparametric tests of association. Pearson correlation was used to quantify the association between...
https://epubs.rcsi.ie/fcmmubart/2
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The Generation of Domestic Electricity Load Profiles through Markov Chain Modelling
(2010)
Duffy, Aidan; McLoughlin, Fintan; Conlon, Michael
The Generation of Domestic Electricity Load Profiles through Markov Chain Modelling
(2010)
Duffy, Aidan; McLoughlin, Fintan; Conlon, Michael
Abstract:
Microgeneration technologies such as photovoltaics and microwind power are becoming increasing popular among homeowners, mainly a result of policy support mechanisms helping to improve cost competiveness as compared to traditional fossil fuel generation. National government strategies to reduce electricity demand generated from fossil fuels and to meet European Union 20/20 targets is driving this change. However, the real performance of these technologies in a domestic setting is not often known as high time resolution models for domestic electricity load profiles are not readily available. As a result, projections in terms of reducing electricity demand and financial paybacks for these microgeneration technologies are not always realistic. Domestic electricity load profiles are often highly stochastic, influenced by many different independent variables such as environmental, dwelling and occupant characteristics that shape individual customer’s load across a single day. This pap...
https://arrow.dit.ie/dubencon2/9
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