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Charge compensation and Ce3+ formation in trivalent doping of the CeO2(110) surface: The key role of dopant ionic radius
Nolan, Michael
In this paper, we use density functional theory corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT + U) and hybrid DFT (HSE06 functional) to study the defects formed when the ceria (110) surface is doped with a series of trivalent dopants, namely, Al3+, Sc3+, Y3+, and In 3+. Using the hybrid DFT HSE06 exchange-correlation functional as a benchmark, we show that doping the (110) surface with a single trivalent ion leads to formation of a localized MCe / + O O • (M = the 3+ dopant), O- hole state, confirming the description found with DFT + U. We use DFT + U to investigate the energetics of dopant compensation through formation of the 2MCe ′ +VO ̈ defect, that is, compensation of two dopants with an oxygen vacancy. In conjunction with earlier work on La-doped CeO2, we find that the stability of the compensating anion vacancy depends on the dopant ionic radius. For Al3+, which has the smallest ionic radius, and Sc3+ and In3+, with intermediate ionic radii, formation of a compensating oxygen vacancy is stable. On the other hand, the Y3+ dopant, with an ionic radius close to that of Ce4+, shows a positive anion vacancy formation energy, as does La3+, which is larger than Ce4+ (J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2010, 20, 135004). When considering the resulting electronic structure, in Al3+ doping, oxygen hole compensation is found. However, Sc 3+, In3+, and Y3+ show the formation of a reduced Ce3+ cation and an uncompensated oxygen hole, similar to La3+. These results suggest that the ionic radius of trivalent dopants strongly influences the final defect formed when doping ceria with 3+ cations. In light of these findings, experimental investigations of these systems will be welcome.
Keyword(s): Density functional theory; Transform infra-red spectroscopy; Oxygen vacancy formation; Augmented wave method; Ceria surfaces; Electronic structure; Carbon monoxide; Co-adsorption; Stabilised zirconia; Low-index surfaces
Publication Date:
2011
Type: Journal article
Peer-Reviewed: Yes
Language(s): English
Institution: University College Cork
Funder(s): Higher Education Authority; Science Foundation Ireland
Citation(s): Nolan, M. (2011) 'Charge compensation and Ce3+ formation in trivalent doping of the CeO2(110) surface: The key role of dopant ionic radius', Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115(14), pp. 6671-6681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp112112u
Publisher(s): American Chemical Society
File Format(s): application/pdf
First Indexed: 2016-09-30 05:36:05 Last Updated: 2016-10-14 06:07:09