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Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: from genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use
Atkins, John F.; Loughran, Gary; Bhatt, Pramod R.; Firth, Andrew E.; Baranov, Pavel V.
Genetic decoding is not ‘frozen’ as was earlier thought, but dynamic. One facet of this is frameshifting that often results in synthesis of a C-terminal region encoded by a new frame. Ribosomal frameshifting is utilized for the synthesis of additional products, for regulatory purposes and for translational ‘correction’ of problem or ‘savior’ indels. Utilization for synthesis of additional products occurs prominently in the decoding of mobile chromosomal element and viral genomes. One class of regulatory frameshifting of stable chromosomal genes governs cellular polyamine levels from yeasts to humans. In many cases of productively utilized frameshifting, the proportion of ribosomes that frameshift at a shift-prone site is enhanced by specific nascent peptide or mRNA context features. Such mRNA signals, which can be 5′ or 3′ of the shift site or both, can act by pairing with ribosomal RNA or as stem loops or pseudoknots even with one component being 4 kb 3′ from the shift site. Transcriptional realignment at slippage-prone sequences also generates productively utilized products encoded trans-frame with respect to the genomic sequence. This too can be enhanced by nucleic acid structure. Together with dynamic codon redefinition, frameshifting is one of the forms of recoding that enriches gene expression.
Keyword(s): Genetic decoding; Ribosomal frameshifting; gene expression; mRNA; Ribosomal RNA
Publication Date:
2016
Type: Journal article
Peer-Reviewed: Yes
Language(s): English
Institution: University College Cork
Funder(s): Science Foundation Ireland
Citation(s): Atkins, J. F., Loughran, G., Bhatt, P. R., Firth, A. E. and Baranov, P. V. (2016) ‘Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: from genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use’, Nucleic Acids Research, 44, pp. 7007-7078. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw530
Publisher(s): Oxford University Press
File Format(s): application/pdf
First Indexed: 2016-10-18 06:02:46 Last Updated: 2016-10-18 06:02:46