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Local plasmon engineering in doped graphene
Hardcastle, Trevor P.; Hage, Fredrik S.; Gjerding, Morten N.; Kepaptsoglou, Demie M.; Seabourne, Che R.; Winther, Kirsten T.; Zan, Recep; Amani, Julian Alexander; Hofsaess, Hans C.; Bangert, Ursel; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Ramasse, Quentin M.
Single atom B or N substitutional doping in single-layer suspended graphene, realised by low energy ion implantation, is shown to induce a dampening or enhancement of the characteristic interband π plasmon of graphene through a high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy study in the scanning transmission electron microscope. A relative 16% decrease or 20% increase in the π plasmon quality factor is attributed to the presence of a single substitutional B or N atom dopant respectively. This modification is in both cases shown to be relatively localised, with data suggesting the plasmonic response tailoring can no longer be detected within experimental uncertainties beyond a distance of approximately 1 nm from the dopant. Ab initio calculations confirm the trends observed experimentally. Our results directly confirm the possibility of tailoring the plasmonic properties of graphene in the ultraviolet waveband, at the atomic scale, a crucial step in the quest for utilising graphene’s properties towards the development of plasmonic and optoelectronic devices operating at ultraviolet frequencies. Due to its fascinating properties, graphene is emerging as a highly promising plasmonic material for implementation in devices aimed at applications such as chemical and molecular sensing, ultrafast optical modulation, non-linear optics, photo detection, light sources and quantum optics.1-6 In the terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral range graphene plasmons are associated with the collective excitation of free charge carriers and exhibit a higher degree of tunability and mode confinement, as well as longer propagation distances than noble metals.1-5 The graphene “charge carrier plasmon” frequency scales as ⁄ . , where EF is the Fermi energy and D is the size of the graphene sheet.1, 4 This means that the plasmon frequency can be tuned by either varying the Fermi level (e.g. through electrostatic gating4, 5, 7, 8 or chemical doping2, 4, 5), modifying the size of the graphene sheet4 (e.g. by making micro to nanoscale graphene ribbons4, 5 or discs3, 5, 9) or a combination of both. Using one or both these “methods” to push the charge carrier plasmon frequency into the near-IR to visible spectrum is of significant current interest in the community.1, 3, 4, 10 Existing graphene-based IR plasmonic devices already exhibit promising properties, such as gate tuneable switching and control of the plasmon wavelength as well as a 40-60 times reduction in plasmon wavelength (as compared to the incident IR illumination).7, 8 While these plasmons can propagate a distance on the order of a few times their own wavelength,7, 8 on par with measurements of plasmons in Au,8, 11 this falls short of that expected for high purity graphene.7, 8 This has been attributed to disorder.12 Indeed, the graphene charge carrier plasmon mobility is expected to decrease to various degrees depending on type and concentration of dopants12, 13 and other defects,14 as well as the specific edge structures of nanoscale ribbons and similar nanoscale geometries.4 Possible strategies for realisation of graphene based plasmonics in the near-IR to visible spectrum, while taking into consideration the above effects (among others), are discussed in Ref. 4 At higher spectral frequencies, in the ultraviolet (UV) range, graphene exhibits interband plasmons resonances attributed to the collective oscillation of π and σ valence electrons.15- 17 These interband plasmons show a remarkable degree of sensitivity to various nano- to atomic-scale structures and defects in graphene: interband plasmon localisation has been attributed to confinement induced by edge states of a ~1.3 nm graphene quantum disc18 and single substitutional Si atoms have been associated with a highly localised enhancement of the interband plasmon response.19 In periodically rippled graphene (on a Ru(0001) surface) the interband π plasmon is confined to ripple “hills” while being significantly dampened in ripple “valleys”.20 Admittedly showing a more limited tunability compared to the charge carrier plasmon,4 the interband π plasmon frequency is nonetheless predicted to progressively red-shift with increasing graphene nanodisc diameter, being the most sensitive to disc diameters below 20 nm.21 However, with the exception of the above studies, reports on other aspects of the interband plasmon response of graphene are lacking in the literature. Such knowledge might open up avenues for future implementation of graphene based plasmonic and optoelectronic devices operating in the UV waveband. With this goal in mind, the present work investigates the modification of the interband plasmon response of graphene associated with two key substitutional dopants, namely boron and nitrogen atoms. The inclusion of B or N atoms in the graphene lattice is the focus of extensive study in the scientific community, with the aim to modify the electronic structure of graphene.22-29 Substitutional B and ...
Keyword(s): STEM; EELS; plasmon; boron; nitrogen; graphene; DFT
Publication Date:
2018
Type: Journal article
Peer-Reviewed: Yes
Language(s): English
Institution: University of Limerick
Citation(s): ACS Nano;12
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b08650
DNRF103
Publisher(s): ACS Publications
First Indexed: 2018-08-11 06:35:05 Last Updated: 2018-08-11 06:35:05