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Effects of scale-up on the mechanism and kinetics of crystal nucleation
Steendam, René R.E.; Keshavarz, Leila; Blijlevens, Melian A.R.; de Souza, Brian P.; Croker, Denise M.; Frawley, Patrick J.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 8/08/2019 Insight into nucleation kinetics and other nucleation parameters can be obtained from probability distributions of induction time measurements in combination with the classical nucleation theory. In this work, induction times of crystallization were recorded using a robust and automated methodology involving a focused beam reflectance measurement probe. This methodology is easily interchangeable between different crystallizers which allowed us to investigate the effects of scale-up on the kinetics of crystal nucleation of paracetamol from 2-propanol in four different crystallizers, ranging from small magnetically stirred 10 mL solutions to overhead-stirred solutions of 680 mL. The nucleation rate was an order of magnitude faster in the magnetically stirred crystallizer as compared to the crystallizers involving overhead stirring. The thermodynamic part of the nucleation rate expression did not significantly change the nucleation rate, whereas the kinetic nucleation parameter was found to be the rate-determining process when the crystallization process was scaled-up. In particular, the shear rate was rationalized to be the part of the kinetic parameter that changes most significantly when the crystallization process was scaled-up. The effect of shear rate on the nucleation kinetics decreases with increasing volume and plateaus when the volume becomes too large. In this work, the nucleation mechanism was also investigated using the chiral sodium chlorate system. These experiments showed that the single nucleus mechanism is the underlying nucleation mechanism in all four tested crystallization setups when supersaturation remains the same. When the supersaturation was changed continuously through cooling, crystallization was driven by a multinucleus mechanism. The automated and robust method used to measure induction times can easily be extended to other crystallizers, enabling the measurement of induction times beyond small crystallizer volumes.
Keyword(s): nucleation kinetics; kinetics
Publication Date:
Type: Journal article
Peer-Reviewed: Yes
Language(s): English
Institution: University of Limerick
Funder(s): Science Foundation Ireland
Citation(s): 12RC2275
Crystal Growth and Design;18 (9), pp. 5547-5555
Publisher(s): American Chemical Society
First Indexed: 2018-10-13 06:25:08 Last Updated: 2018-10-13 06:25:08