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Thermal effects of mobile phones on human auricle region
Baurer, Joanna; O'Mahony, Charlie; Chovan, Drahomir; Mulcahy, John; Silien, Christophe; Tofail, Syed A.M.
Mobile phones have become an indispensable utility to modern society, with international use increasing dramatically each year. The GSM signal operates at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2250 MHz, may potentially cause harm to human tissue. Yet there is no in silico model to aid design these devices to protect from causing potential thermal effect. Here we present a model of sources of heating in a mobile phone device with experimental verification during the phone call. We have developed this mobile phone thermal model using first principles on COMSOL® Multiphysics modelling platform to simulate heating effect in human auricle region due to mobile phone use. In particular, our model considered both radiative and non-radiative heating from components such as the lithium ion battery, CPU circuitry and the antenna. The model showed the distribution and effect of the heating effect due to mobile phone use and considered impact of battery discharge rate, battery capacity, battery cathode material, biological tissue distance, antenna radio-wave frequency and intensity. Furthermore, the lithium ion battery heating was validated during experiments using temperature sensors with an excellent agreement between simulated and experimental data (<1% variation). Mobile phone heating during a typical call has also been simulated and compared with experimental infrared thermographic imaging. Importantly, we found that 1800 MHz frequency of data transmission showed the highest temperature increase in the fat/water phantom used in this simulation. We also successfully compared heating distribution in human auricle region during mobile phone use with clinical thermographic images with reasonable qualitative and quantitative agreements. In summary, our model provides a foundation to conceive thermal and other physical effects caused by mobile phone use and allow for the understanding of potential negative health effects thus supporting and promoting personalized and preventive medicine using thermography.
Keyword(s): biological heat transfer; thermal model; mobile phone; health impact of mobile phone; IR thermography; personalized and preventive medicine
Publication Date:
2018
Type: Journal article
Peer-Reviewed: Yes
Language(s): English
Institution: University of Limerick
Citation(s): Journal of Thermal Biology;79, pp. 56-68
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.11.008
Publisher(s): Elsevier
First Indexed: 2018-12-15 06:26:18 Last Updated: 2019-11-22 06:45:26