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Spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica and Calicophoron daubneyi infections in ruminants in Ireland and modelling of C. daubneyi infection
Naranjo-Lucena, Amalia; Munita, Maria P; Martinez-Ibeas, Ana M; McGrath, Guy; Murray, Gerard; Casey, Micheal; Good, Barbara; Sayers, Riona; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta
Background Fasciola hepatica has always represented a threat to Irish livestock because the Irish climate is highly suitable for the main local intermediate host of the parasite, the snail Galba truncatula. The recent clinical emergence of infections due to Calicophoron daubneyi has raised the question of whether the two parasites, which share a niche during part of their life-cycles, interact in some way. Here, we used geographical information systems (GIS) to analyse the distribution of both parasites in cattle and sheep. We also developed the first predictive model of paramphistomosis in Ireland. Results Our results indicated that, in cattle, liver fluke infection is less common than rumen fluke infection and does not exhibit the same seasonal fluctuations. Overall, we found that cattle had a higher likelihood of being infected with rumen fluke than sheep (OR = 3.134, P < 0.01). In addition, infection with one parasite increased the odds of infection with the other in both host species. Rumen fluke in cattle showed the highest spatial density of infection. Environmental variables such as soil drainage, land cover and habitat appeared to be the most important risk factors for C. daubneyi infection, followed by rainfall and vegetation. Overall the risk of infection with this parasite was predicted to be higher in the west of the country. Conclusions This study shows differences between the infection rates and spatial patterns of bovine and ovine infections with F. hepatica and C. daubneyi in Ireland. Whether the reasons for this are due to susceptibility, exposure and/or management factors is yet to be determined. Furthermore, the rumen fluke model indicates distinct risk factors and predicted distribution to those of F. hepatica, suggesting potential biological differences between both parasite species. This work was supported by the European Union Horizon 2020 programme (PARAGONE: vaccines for animal parasites. H2020-EU.3.2. SOCIETAL CHALLENGES, under grant agreement No 635408), who provided funding for training and software access used in the analysis. The Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine - Research Stimulus Fund though the Flukeless Research Project (under project no 13/S/405), provided data employed in the modelling process.
Keyword(s): Calicophoron daubneyi; Fasciola hepatica; co-infection; Kernel density; Machine Learning; Risk factors; Risk mapping; Prediction
Publication Date:
Type: Other
Peer-Reviewed: Yes
Language(s): English
Contributor(s): European Union; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 635408); 13/S/405
Institution: Teagasc
Publisher(s): Biomed Central
First Indexed: 2019-07-31 07:10:18 Last Updated: 2019-09-11 07:05:31