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A pragmatic randomized waitlist-controlled effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial of digital interventions for depression and anxiety
Richards, Derek; Enrique, Angel; Eilert, Nora; Franklin, Matthew; Palacios, Jorge; Duffy, Daniel; Earley, Caroline; Chapman, Judith; Jell, Grace; Sollesse, Sarah; Timulak, Ladislav
Utilization of internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for treating depression and anxiety disorders in stepped-care models, such as the UK?s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), is a potential solution for addressing the treatment gap in mental health. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of iCBT when fully integrated within IAPT stepped-care settings. We conducted an 8-week pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a 2:1 (iCBT intervention: waiting-list) allocation, for participants referred to an IAPT Step 2 service with depression and anxiety symptoms (Trial registration: ISRCTN91967124). The primary outcomes measures were PHQ-9 (depressive symptoms) and GAD-7 (anxiety symptoms) and WSAS (functional impairment) as a secondary outcome. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on EQ-5D-5L (preference-based health status) to elicit the quality-adjust life year (QALY) and a modified-Client Service Receipt Inventory (care resource-use). Diagnostic interviews were administered at baseline and 3 months. Three-hundred and sixty-one participants were randomized (iCBT, 241; waiting-list, 120). Intention-to-treat analyses showed significant interaction effects for the PHQ-9 (b?=??2.75, 95% CI ?4.00, ?1.50) and GAD-7 (b?=??2.79, 95% CI ?4.00, ?1.58) in favour of iCBT at 8-week and further improvements observed up to 12-months. Over 8-weeks the probability of cost-effectiveness was 46.6% if decision makers are willing to pay ?30,000 per QALY, increasing to 91.2% when the control-arm?s outcomes and costs were extrapolated over 12-months. Results indicate that iCBT for depression and anxiety is effective and potentially cost-effective in the long-term within IAPT. Upscaling the use of iCBT as part of stepped care could help to enhance IAPT outcomes. The pragmatic trial design supports the ecological validity of the findings.
Keyword(s): Depression; Anxiety; iCBT; Internet-delivered interventions; Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy; Anxiety disorders; Digital Engagement; ANXIETY; DEPRESSION; Mental Health/Psychosocial disability
Publication Date:
Type: Journal article
Peer-Reviewed: Yes
Language(s): English
Institution: Trinity College Dublin
Citation(s): Richards, D., Enrique, A., Eilert, N., Franklin, M., Palacios, J., Duffy, D., Earley, C., Chapman, J., Jell, G., Sollesse, S. & Timulak, L., A pragmatic randomized waitlist-controlled effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial of digital interventions for depression and anxiety., npj Digital Medicine, 2020, 1 - 10
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First Indexed: 2020-06-19 07:46:06 Last Updated: 2020-10-30 07:43:47