Institutions | About Us | Help | Gaeilge
rian logo


Mark
Go Back
Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts
Twiner, M J; Rehmann, N; Hess, P; Doucette, G J
Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 μg AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs.
Keyword(s): azaspiracid (AZA); AZP; shellfish poisoning
Publication Date:
2008
Type: Other
Peer-Reviewed: Unknown
Language(s): English
Institution: Marine Institute
Citation(s): Twiner M.J., Rehmann N., Hess P., Doucette G.J. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts. Marine Drugs. 2008; 6(2):39-72
Publisher(s): MDPI AG
First Indexed: 2013-11-19 11:03:38 Last Updated: 2018-02-15 07:03:34